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The 42.5-acre Aisne-Marne Cemetery and Memorial in France, its headstones lying in a sweeping curve, sits at the foot of
the hill where stands Belleau Wood. The cemetery contains the graves of 2,289 war dead, most of whom fought in the vicinity
and in the Marne valley in the summer of 1918. The memorial chapel sits on a hillside, decorated with sculptured and stained-glass
details of wartime personnel, equipment and insignia. Inscribed on its interior wall are 1,060 names of the missing. Rosettes
mark the names of those since recovered and identified. During World War II, the chapel was damaged slightly by an enemy shell.
Belleau Wood adjoins the cemetery and contains many vestiges of World War I. A monument at the flagpole commemorates
the valor of the U.S. Marines who captured much of this ground in 1918.
The approach drive at Ardennes American Cemetery and Memorial in Belgium leads to the memorial, a stone structure bearing
on its façade a massive American eagle and other sculptures. Within are the chapel, three large wall maps composed of inlaid
marbles, marble panels depicting combat and supply activities and other ornamental features. Along the outside of the memorial,
462 names are inscribed on the granite Tablets of the Missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
The façade on the far (north) end that overlooks the burial area bears the insignia, in mosaic, of the major U.S. units that
operated in northwest Europe in World War II.
The 90-acre cemetery contains the graves of 5,329 of our military dead,
many of whom died in the 1944 Ardennes winter offensive (Battle of the Bulge). The headstones are aligned in straight rows
that form a Greek cross on the lawns and are framed by tree masses. The cemetery served as the location of the Central Identification
Point for the American Graves Registration Service of the War Department during much of the life of the Service.
The Brittany American Cemetery and Memorial in France covers 28 acres of rolling farm country near the eastern edge of
Brittany and contains the remains of 4,410 of our war dead, most of whom lost their lives in the Normandy and Brittany campaigns
of 1944. Along the retaining wall of the memorial terrace are inscribed the names of 498 of the missing. Rosettes mark the
names of those since recovered and identified.
The gray granite memorial, containing the chapel as well as two large
operations maps with narratives and flags of our military services, overlooks the burial area. Stained glass and sculpture
embellish the structure. The lookout platform of the tower, reached by 98 steps, affords a view of the stately pattern of
the headstones, as well as of the peaceful surrounding countryside stretching northward to the sea and Mont St. Michel. The
cemetery is located on the site of the temporary American St. James Cemetery, established on August 4, 1944 by the U.S. Third
Army. It marks the point where the American forces made their breakthrough from the hedgerow country of Normandy into the
plains of Brittany during the offensive around Avranches.
The 4.5 acre Brookwood American Cemetery and Memorial in England lies to the west of the large civilian cemetery built
by the London Necropolis Co. and contains the graves of 468 of our military dead. Close by are military cemeteries and monuments
of the British Commonwealth and other allied nations. Automobiles may drive through the Commonwealth or civilian cemeteries
to the American cemetery.
Within the American cemetery the headstones are arranged in four plots, grouped about the
flagpole. The regular rows of white marble headstones on the smooth lawn are framed by masses of shrubs and evergreen trees
which form a perfect setting for the chapel, a classic white stone building on the north end of the cemetery. The interior
of the chapel is of tan-hued stone. Small stained-glass windows light the altar and flags and the carved cross above them.
On the walls within the chapel are inscribed the names of 563 of the missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered
The Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial site in England, 30.5 acres in total, was donated by the University of Cambridge.
It lies on a slope with the west and south sides framed by woodland. The cemetery contains the remains of 3,812 of our military
dead; 5,127 names are recorded on the Tablets of the Missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
Most died in the Battle of the Atlantic or in the strategic air bombardment of northwest Europe.
From the flagpole
platform near the main entrance, the great mall with its reflecting pools stretches eastward. It is from the mall that the
wide, sweeping curve of the burial area across the green lawns is best appreciated. Along the south side are the Tablets of
the Missing, and at the far end is the memorial with its chapel, two huge military maps, stained-glass windows bearing the
state seals and military decorations, and mosaic ceiling memorial to the dead of our air forces.
The American Battle Monuments Commission assumed responsibility for the care and maintenance of the Corozal
American Cemetery in Panama in 1982. At this 16-acre cemetery are interred 5,364 American veterans and others. A paved walk
leads from the Visitor Center to a small memorial that sits atop a knoll overlooking the graves area. The memorial consists
of a paved plaza with a 12-foot rectangular granite obelisk flanked by two flagpoles on which fly the United States and Panamanian
flags. Engraved on the obelisk in English and Spanish is the following inscription:
THIS MEMORIAL HAS BEEN ERECTED
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
IN HUMBLE TRIBUTE TO ALL INTERRED HERE
WHO SERVED IN ITS ARMED FORCES OR
TO THE CONSTRUCTION,
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF
THE PANAMA CANAL
Epinal, FranceThe Epinal American Cemetery and Memorial in France, 48.6 acres in extent, is sited on a plateau 100 feet above the Moselle
River in the foothills of the Vosges Mountains. It contains the graves of 5,255 of our military dead, most of whom lost their
lives in the campaigns across northeastern France to the Rhine and beyond into Germany. The cemetery was established in October
1944 by the 46th Quartermaster Graves Registration Company of the U.S. Seventh Army as it drove northward from southern France
through the Rhone Valley into Germany. The cemetery became the repository for the fatalities in the bitter fighting through
the Heasbourg Gap during the winter of 1944-45.
The memorial, a rectangular structure with two large bas-relief panels,
consists of a chapel, portico, and map room with a mosaic operations map. On the walls of the Court of Honor, which surround
the memorial, are inscribed the names of 424 of the missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
Stretching northward is a wide, tree-lined mall that separates the two large burial plots. At the northern end of the mall,
the circular flagpole plaza forms an overlook affording a view of a wide sweep of the Moselle Valley.
On May 12, 1958, thirteen caskets draped with American flags were placed side by side at the memorial. Each casket contained
the remains of one World War II Unknown American, one from each of the thirteen permanent American military cemeteries in
the European Theater of Operations. In a solemn ceremony, General Edward J. O'Neill, Commanding General of the U.S. Army Communication
Zone, Europe, selected the Unknown to represent the European Theater. It was flown to Naples, Italy and placed with Unknowns
from the Atlantic and Pacific Theaters of Operation aboard the USS Blandy for transportation to Washington, D.C. for final
selection of the Unknown from World War II. On Memorial Day, 1958, the remains were buried alongside the Unknown from World
War I at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery.
Flanders Field, Belgium
The Flanders Field American Cemetery and Memorial in Belgium occupies a 6.2-acre site. Masses of graceful trees
and shrubbery frame the burial area and screen it from passing traffic. At the ends of the paths leading to three of the corners
of the cemetery are circular retreats, with benches and urns. At this peaceful site rest 368 of our military dead, most of
whom gave their lives in liberating the soil of Belgium in World War I. Their headstones are aligned in four symmetrical areas
around the white stone chapel that stands in the center of the cemetery.
The altar inside the chapel is made of black
and white "Grand Antique" marble with draped flags on each side; above it is a crusader's sword outlined in gold. The chapel
furniture is of carved oak, stained black with white veining to harmonize with the altar; 43 names are inscribed on Walls
of the Missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
The Florence American Cemetery and Memorial site in Italy covers 70 acres, chiefly on the west side of the Greve "torrente."
The wooded hills that frame its west limit rise several hundred feet. Between the two entrance buildings, a bridge leads to
the burial area where the headstones of 4,402 of our military dead are arrayed in symmetrical curved rows upon the hillside.
They represent 39 percent of the U.S. Fifth Army burials originally made between Rome and the Alps. Most died in the fighting
that occurred after the capture of Rome in June 1944. Included among them are casualties of the heavy fighting in the Apennines
shortly before the war's end. On May 2, 1945, the enemy troops in northern Italy surrendered.
Above the graves, on
the topmost of three broad terraces, stands the memorial marked by a tall pylon surmounted by a large sculptured figure. The
memorial has two open atria, or courts, joined by the Tablets of the Missing upon which are inscribed 1,409 names. Rosettes
mark the names of those since recovered and identified. The atrium at the south end of the Tablets of the Missing serves as
a forecourt to the chapel, which is decorated with marble and mosaic. The north atrium contains the marble operations maps
recording the achievements of the American armed forces in this region.
At the Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery and Memorial in Belgium, covering 57 acres, rest 7,992 of our military dead, most
of whom lost their lives during the advance of the U.S. armed forces into Germany. Their headstones are arranged in gentle
arcs sweeping across a broad green lawn that slopes gently downhill. A highway passes through the reservation. West of the
highway an overlook affords an excellent view of the rolling Belgian countryside, once a battlefield.
To the east
is the long colonnade that, with the chapel and map room, forms the memorial overlooking the burial area. The chapel is simple
but richly ornamented. In the map room are two maps of military operations, carved in black granite, with inscriptions recalling
the achievements of our forces. On the rectangular piers of the colonnade are inscribed the names of 450 missing. Rosettes
mark the names of those since recovered and identified. The seals of the states and territories are also carved on these piers.
The cemetery possesses great military historic significance as it holds fallen Americans of two major efforts, one
covering the U.S. First Army's drive in September 1944 through northern France, Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg into Germany,
the second covering the Battle of the Bulge. It was from the temporary cemetery at Henri-Chapelle that the first shipments
of remains of American war dead were returned to the U.S. for permanent burial. The repatriation program began on July 27,
1947 at a special ceremony at the cemetery when the disinterment began. The first shipment of 5,600 American war dead from
Henri-Chapelle left Antwerp, Belgium the first week of October 1947. An impressive ceremony was held, with over 30,000 Belgium
citizens attending along with representatives of the Belgium government and senior Americans.
The Lorraine American Cemetery and Memorial in France covers 113.5 acres and contains the largest number of graves of our
military dead of World War II in Europe, a total of 10,489. Their headstones are arranged in nine plots in a generally elliptical
design extending over the beautiful rolling terrain of eastern Lorraine and culminating in a prominent overlook feature. Most
of the dead here were killed while driving the German forces from the fortress city of Metz toward the Siegfried Line and
the Rhine River. Initially, there were over 16,000 Americans interred in the St. Avold region, mostly from the U.S. Seventh
Army's Infantry and Armored Divisions and its Cavalry Groups. St. Avold served as a vital communications center for the vast
network of enemy defenses guarding the western border of the Third Reich.
The memorial, which stands on a plateau
to the west of the burial area, contains ceramic operations maps with narratives and service flags. High on its exterior front
wall is the large figure of St. Nabor, the martyred Roman soldier overlooking the silent host. On each side of the memorial,
and parallel to its front, stretch the Tablets of the Missing on which are inscribed 444 names. Rosettes mark the names of
those since recovered and identified. The entire area is framed in woodland.
The Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial, 50.5 acres in extent, is situated in a beautiful wooded area. The cemetery
was established on December 29, 1944 by the 609th Quartermaster Company of the U.S. Third Army while Allied Forces were stemming
the enemy's desperate Ardennes Offensive, one of the critical battles of World War II. The city of Luxembourg served as headquarters
for General George S. Patton's U.S. Third Army. General Patton is buried here.
Not far from the cemetery entrance
stands the white stone chapel, set on a wide circular platform surrounded by woods. It is embellished with sculpture in bronze
and stone, a stained-glass window with American unit insignia, and a mosaic ceiling. Flanking the chapel at a lower level
are two large stone pylons upon which are maps made of various inlaid granites, with inscriptions recalling the achievements
of the American armed forces in this region. On the same pylons are inscribed the names of 371 of the missing. Rosettes mark
the names of those since recovered and identified.
Sloping gently downhill from the memorial is the burial area containing
5,076 of our military dead, many of whom lost their lives in the "Battle of the Bulge" and in the advance to the Rhine. Their
headstones follow graceful curves; trees, fountains and flower beds contribute to the dignity of the ensemble.
The Manila American Cemetery and Memorial in the Philippines occupies 152 acres on a prominent plateau, visible at a distance
from the east, south and west. It contains the largest number of graves of our military dead of World War II, a total of 17,202,
most of whom lost their lives in operations in New Guinea and the Philippines. The headstones are aligned in 11 plots forming
a generally circular pattern, set among masses of a wide variety of tropical trees and shrubbery.
The chapel, a white
masonry building enriched with sculpture and mosaic, stands near the center of the cemetery. In front of it on a wide terrace
are two large hemicycles. Twenty-five mosaic maps recall the achievements of the American armed forces in the Pacific, China,
India and Burma. On rectangular Trani limestone piers within the hemicycles are inscribed the Tablets of the Missing containing
36,285 names. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified. Carved in the floors are the seals of the American
states and its territories. From the memorial and other points within the cemetery there are impressive views over the lowlands
to Laguna de Bay and towards the distant mountains.
Within the Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery and Memorial in France, which covers 130.5 acres, rest the largest number of
our military dead in Europe, a total of 14,246. Most of those buried here lost their lives during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive
of World War I. The immense array of headstones rises in long regular rows upward beyond a wide central pool to the chapel
that crowns the ridge. A beautiful bronze screen separates the chapel foyer from the interior, which is decorated with stained-glass
windows portraying American unit insignia; behind the altar are flags of the principal Allied nations.
On either side
of the chapel are memorial loggias. One panel of the west loggia contains a map of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Inscribed
on the remaining panels of both loggias are Tablets of the Missing with 954 names, including those from the U.S. expedition
to northern Russia in 1918-1919. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
Mexico City, Mexico
The Mexico City National Cemetery was established in 1851 by Congress to gather the American dead of the Mexican War that
lay in the nearby fields and to provide burial space for Americans that died in the vicinity. A small monument marks the common
grave of 750 unidentified American dead of the War of 1847. Inscribed on the monument are the words:
TO THE HONORED MEMORY
OF 750 AMERICANS
KNOWN BUT TO GOD
WHOSE BONES COLLECTED
BY THEIR COUNTRY'S ORDER
In this 1-acre area are also placed 813 remains of Americans and others in wall crypts on either side of the cemetery.
The cemetery was closed to further burials in 1923.
The World War II Netherlands American Cemetery and Memorial is the only American military cemetery in the Netherlands.
The cemetery site has a rich historical background, lying near the famous Cologne-Boulogne highway built by the Romans and
used by Caesar during his campaign in that area. The highway was also used by Charlemagne, Charles V, Napoleon, and Kaiser
Wilhelm II. In May 1940, Hitler's legions advanced over the route of the old Roman highway, overwhelming the Low Countries.
In September 1944, German troops once more used the highway for their withdrawal from the countries occupied for four years.
The cemetery's tall memorial tower can be seen before reaching the site, which covers 65.5 acres. From the cemetery
entrance the visitor is led to the Court of Honor with its pool reflecting the tower. At the base of the tower facing the
reflecting pool is a statue representing a mother grieving her lost son. To the right and left, respectively, are the Visitor
Building and the map room containing three large, engraved operations maps with texts depicting the military operations of
the American armed forces. Stretching along the sides of the court are Tablets of the Missing on which are recorded 1,722
names. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
Within the tower is a chapel. The light fixture in the chapel and the altar candelabra and flower bowl were presented by
the government of the Netherlands and by the local Provincial administration. Beyond the tower is a burial area divided into
16 plots, where rest 8,301 of our military dead, their headstones set in long curves. A wide, tree-lined mall leads to the
flagstaff that crowns the crest.
The Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial in France is located on the site of the temporary American St. Laurent Cemetery,
established by the U.S. First Army on June 8, 1944 and the first American cemetery on European soil in World War II. The cemetery
site, at the north end of its ½ mile access road, covers 172.5 acres and contains the graves of 9,387 of our military dead,
most of whom lost their lives in the D-Day landings and ensuing operations. On the Walls of the Missing in a semicircular
garden on the east side of the memorial are inscribed 1,557 names. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
The memorial consists of a semicircular colonnade with a loggia at each end containing large maps and narratives of
the military operations; at the center is the bronze statue, "Spirit of American Youth." An orientation table overlooking
the beach depicts the landings in Normandy. Facing west at the memorial, one sees in the foreground the reflecting pool; beyond
is the burial area with a circular chapel and, at the far end, granite statues representing the U.S. and France.
North Africa, Tunisia
At the 27-acre North Africa American Cemetery and Memorial in Tunisia rest 2,841 of our military dead, their headstones
set in straight lines subdivided into 9 rectangular plots by wide paths, with decorative pools at their intersections. Along
the southeast edge of the burial area, bordering the tree-lined terrace leading to the memorial is the Wall of the Missing.
On this wall 3,724 names are engraved. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified. Most honored here
lost their lives in World War II in military activities ranging from North Africa to the Persian Gulf.
and the memorial court, which contains large maps in mosaic and ceramic depicting the operations and supply activities of
American forces across Africa to the Persian Gulf, were designed to harmonize with local architecture. The chapel interior
is decorated with polished marble, flags and sculpture.
The Oise-Aisne American Cemetery and Memorial in France contains the remains of 6,012 American war dead, most of whom lost
their lives while fighting in this vicinity in 1918 during the First World War. Their headstones, aligned in long rows on
the 36.5-acre site, rise in a gentle slope from the entrance to the memorial at the far end. The burial area is divided into
four plots by wide paths lined by trees and beds of roses; at the intersection are a circular plaza and the flagpole.
memorial is a curving colonnade, flanked at the ends by a chapel and a map room. It is built of rose-colored sandstone with
white trim bearing sculptured details of wartime equipment. The chapel contains an altar of carved stone. Engraved upon its
Walls of the Missing are 241 names. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified. The map room contains
an engraved and colored wall map portraying the military operations in this region during 1918.
The site of the Rhone American Cemetery and Memorial in France was selected because of its historic location along the
route of the U.S. Seventh Army's drive up the Rhone Valley. It was established on August 19, 1944 after the Seventh Army's
surprise landing in southern France.
On 12.5 acres at the foot of a hill clad with the characteristic cypresses, olive
trees, and oleanders of southern France rest 861 of our military dead, most of whom lost their lives in the liberation of
southern France in August 1944. Their headstones are arranged in straight lines, divided into four plots, and grouped about
an oval pool. At each end of the cemetery is a small garden. On the hillside overlooking the cemetery is the chapel with its
wealth of decorative mosaic and large sculptured figures. Between the chapel and the burial area, a bronze relief map recalls
military operations in the region. On the retaining wall of the terrace, 294 names of the missing are inscribed. Rosettes
mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
The World War II Sicily-Rome American Cemetery and Memorial site in Italy covers 77 acres, rising in a gentle slope from
a broad pool with an island and cenotaph flanked by groups of Italian cypress trees. Beyond the pool is the immense field
of headstones of 7,861 of American military war dead, arranged in gentle arcs on broad green lawns beneath rows of Roman pines.
The majority of these men died in the liberation of Sicily (July 10 to August 17, 1943); in the landings in the Salerno Area
(September 9, 1943) and the heavy fighting northward; in the landings at Anzio Beach and expansion of the beachhead (January
22, 1944 to May 1944); and in air and naval support in the regions.
A wide central mall leads to the memorial, rich
in works of art and architecture, expressing America's remembrance of the dead. It consists of a chapel to the south, a peristyle,
and a map room to the north. On the white marble walls of the chapel are engraved the names of 3,095 of the missing. Rosettes
mark the names of those since recovered and identified. The map room contains a bronze relief map and four fresco maps depicting
the military operations in Sicily and Italy. At each end of the memorial are ornamental Italian gardens.
The World War I Somme American Cemetery and Memorial in France is sited on a gentle slope typical of the open, rolling
Picardy countryside. The 14.3-acre cemetery contains the graves of 1,844 of our military dead. Most lost their lives while
serving in American units attached to British armies, or in operations near Cantigny. The headstones, set in regular rows,
are separated into four plots by paths that intersect at the flagpole near the top of the slope. The longer axis leads to
the chapel at the eastern end of the cemetery.
A massive bronze door surmounted by an American eagle leads into the
chapel, whose outer walls contain sculptured pieces of military equipment. Once inside, light from a cross-shaped crystal
window above the marble altar bathes the subdued interior with light. The walls bear the names of 333 of the missing. Rosettes
mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
St. Mihiel, France
The World War I St. Mihiel American Cemetery and Memorial in France, 40.5 acres in extent, contains the graves of 4,153
of our military dead. The majority of these died in the offensive that resulted in the reduction of the St. Mihiel salient
that threatened Paris. The burial area is divided by Linden alignment trees and paths into four equal plots. At the center
is a large sundial surmounted by an American eagle. To the right (west) is a statue of a World War I soldier and at the eastern
end is a semi-circular overlook dominated by a sculpture representing a victory vase.
Beyond the burial area to the
south is the white stone memorial consisting of a small chapel, a peristyle with a large rose-granite funeral urn at its center,
and a map building. The chapel contains a beautiful mosaic portraying an angel sheathing his sword. On two walls of the museum
are recorded the names of 284 of the missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified. On the wall
facing the door is a large map of inlaid marble depicting the St. Mihiel Offensive.
Originally a World War I cemetery, the Suresnes American Cemetery and Memorial
just outside Paris, France now shelters the remains of U.S. dead of both wars. The 7.5-acre cemetery contains the remains
of 1,541 Americans who died in World War I and 24 Unknown dead of World War II. Bronze tablets on the walls of the chapel
record the names of 974 World War I missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified.
World War I memorial chapel was enlarged by the addition of two loggias dedicated to the dead of World Wars I and II, respectively.
In the rooms at the ends of the loggias are white marble figures in memory of those who lost their lives in the two wars.
Inscribed on the loggia walls is a summary of the loss of life in our armed forces in each war, together with the location
of the overseas commemorative cemeteries where our war dead are buried.